The feline anatomy consists of many similarities to that of other species, namely the human body. A cat skeleton has a few more bones, but many of these are identical to those of the human skeleton. Uniquely, a cat's collar bone is unattached to the other bone structures, and its muscular structure is designed for agility, allowing it to leap, twist and fall with grace. Cats have 30 teeth and claws that not only help with hunting and foraging, but assist the cat in maintaining balance, and scratching.
Cat Digestive System
Since a cat's diet in the wild consists primarily of the meat of other animals, the feline anatomy contains a digestive system that creates acids and enzymes appropriate for the breakdown of food and destruction of bacteria. A cat's teeth also play a role in digestion by tearing sharply at meats and other substances. Much like other species, the salivary glands, esophagus, stomach, intestines, liver and kidneys work together to aid the digestive process.
Cat Nervous System
A cat's nervous system is a unique part of the feline anatomy. Cats are born both blind and deaf, and these senses normally don't develop until about two weeks of age. The nervous system fully develops as the kitten ages, barring any trauma or infection that can hinder this process. The central nervous system is responsible for the brain and spinal cord messages, the peripheral nervous system affects muscles and movement, and the autonomic nervous system controls the involuntary functions of the body.
Cat Reproductive System
The reproductive system is the part of the feline anatomy that's responsible for mating, copulation, pregnancy and birth. Female cats, or queens, can produce 2 to 3 litters per year and can give birth to multiple kittens per pregnancy. Cats will usually not go into heat in the winter months, and spaying or neuter will not only prevent unwanted litters and strays, but can also make for a calmer and more relaxed house pet.
A cat's behavior is usually evidenced by its stance or meow. The behavioral aspects of the feline physiology lead us to believe that its a very intelligent animal. Cats have reasoning abilities, and express anger with certain posture, movements and sounds. The temperament of cats varies greatly and can swing from docile and laid back to finicky and aggressive, even pertaining to the same cat. A quick change in attitude or evidence of unexpected hiding or aggressive behavior can indicate a problem. Cats don't react well under stressful conditions and an examination may prove helpful in this case.